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icones religioses catòlics

Nov 17, 2015

Només el fan icones religioses catòlics creuen sobre icones?

Areiconsreallysuperiortootherformsofsacredart? Thegrowthofinterestoficons,identifiedwiththeEasternChurch,hashelpedtoigniteagreatermovementtowardsthere-establishmentofauthenticChristianartinourchurches.Thisisgood.Verygood.However,thesameprocessthathasleadtoagreaterappreciationoftheimportanceoficonshascreatedaswell,itseems,amisplacedmystiqueabouticonstothedetrimentofagenuineappreciationofourowntraditions. WheneverIwriteabouticonsIgetresponsesfrompeoplewhoareveryoftenRomanRiteCatholicswhotellmethatCatholicscan'tpainticons,onlyRussiansorGreekscandoit(eventhoughthefactisthatitisasmuchpartoftheWesterntraditionastheEastern). SometellmethatonlyreligiouscanpaintthemdespitethefactthatIknowacceptedandthrivingiconpainterswhoarenotmonksornuns.IamtoldthatIshouldnotsaythatanartist'paints'icons,ratherthathe'writes'them;eventhoughmyteacher,whoisasOrthodoxastheycomeandarespectedauthorityintheOrthodoxworld,referstothispedanticinsistenceontheword'write'as'abitprecious'. (IamtoldthatthishappensbecausethewordforwriteandpaintisthesameinGreek). I, perhapsmostimportantly, peoplespeakoficonsasthoughthesaintdepictedisreallypresentintheicon. SowhatdoestheChurchreallybelieveabouticons? Ihavedonemybesttofindout.AsIunderstandit,theorthodoxviewwasarticulatedinthe7thEcumenicalCouncilandwithalaterclarificationbytheSynodofConstantinople,whichfinallyclosedtheiconoclasticperiodinAD843.ThisiscelebratedtodayintheEasternChurchastheFeastoftheTriumphofOrthodoxy.TheChurchFatherwhoexpressesthisisStTheodoretheStudite.TheodorewasabbotoftheStudiosMonasteryinConstantinopleandheisreveredintheEasternChurchaswellasWestern. (HeisprobablymoreknownintheEasternChurch). Whatisironicisthattheerrorofattributingtotheiconapresenceofthesaintbyiconophiles(thosewhowereinfavourofthem)isoneofthethingsthattheiconoclastsobjectedtosostronglythatitprovokedthemintoseekingtoeliminatetheuseofsacredimagesaltogether. Theodore, liketheiconoclasts, opposedthisview; butheprovidedanalternativetheologythatjustifiedtheuseofsacredimages. AccordingtoTheodore:1.Theessenceofthesaintisnotpresentintheicon.Itisjustwood,gold, paintetc. Theconnectiontothesaintismadeinourminds, especiallythroughtheimagination, whenweseethecharacteristiclikenessportrayed. Soiftheiconiscoveredup,forexample,bymetalcladding,ithasnosacramentalvalue(unlessthecladdinghasbeenpanelbeatenintoalikeness,inwhichcaseitisthecladdingthatevokesthesaintforus). Theodoreillustrateswiththepointthatoncetheiconbecomesdamagedsothatthelikenessisdestroyed,itisjustthrownaway.2.icons,whenworthyofveneration,arelikesacramentals. Theirvalueisthattheypredisposeustograce, theyarenotthemselveschannelsofgrace. Thisdistinguishesthemfromsacraments.3.Theodore'stheologyappliesasmuchtoanyformofartinwhichthecharacteristiclikenessappears. ThereforetheviewthatwhatwenowconsidertobetheiconographicstyleisahigherformthantheothertraditionsoftheWesternchurch, suchasthegothicandthebaroque, cannotbejustified. Theodorespokeof'icons', butonlyinthebroadsenseofthemeaningoftheinGreek, meaning'image'. Hedidnotrefertospecificstylesortraditionsbeyondthat.Accordingly,histheology,appliesasmuchtogothicandbaroqueart(theothertwotraditionscitedbyPopeBenedictXVIasauthenticallyliturgicalinhisbooktheSpiritoftheLiturgy)asitdoestotheiconographicstyle;itcanalsobeappliedtostatuesasitdoestwo-dimensionalimages. Furthermore,itshouldbepointedoutthatthereisnocanonicalordogmaticstatementoraccountbyanyChurchFather,EasternorWesternthatIknowofthatthatsaysthattheiconographicstyle,aswenowrefertoit,isinherentlysuperiortoanyother. LikethediscussionofTheodore,thedebateintheearlyChurchwasaboutthevalidityofimagesingeneral.Itmaybeasurpriseforsometodiscoverthetheologyoftheiconographicstyleisitisgenerallyarticulatedtoday(andwhichdoesdistinguishtheiconographicstylefromotherformsofsacredart)isamoderndevelopmentanddidnotexistuntilthe20thcentury. Thisdoesn'tmakeitwrong, butitdoesmakeitnew. Weshouldbeawarehowever,thatitwasdevelopedbyveryanti-CatholicRussianOrthodoxthinkersbasedinParis(suchasOuspenskyandLossky). Sowhiletheydidsomegreatworkintheirassessmentoftheirowntradition, theyspokeinignoranceofothertraditions. WhiletheirdismissalofotherliturgicaltraditionsmaybefairfromanOrthodoxpointofview(thatisfortheOrthodoxtosay)buthasnobasisintheteachingoftheCatholicChurch.EasternRiteCatholicsmightlegitimatelyandreasonablysaythattheonlyformofsacredartthatisappropriatefortheEasternRiteistheicon,andthismightaffecttheirchoiceofimageforaniconcornerintheirhomes. ButitisjustaslegitimateforRomanCatholicslooktotheirauthenticliturgicaltraditions (whichincludestheiconographic) andconsiderthemappropriatefortheRomanRite, andforusetheirownhome. ToreadanaccountofthetheologyoficonsofTheodoretheStudite, hisworksarestillavailable. ForanexcellentsummaryofthewholedebateregardingsacredartwhichincludesanaccountofthetheologyofimagesdevelopebybothTheodoreandStJohnofDamascus,IrecommendGod'sHumanFacebyCardinalCristopheSchoenborn,publishedbyIgnatiusPress.TheiconatthetopistheTriumphofOrthodoxy.